Typically, the geography of the coffee plant is in a tropical 25 degree latitude belt on both sides of the equator. The Arabica coffee plant grows best at altitudes between 3000 and 6000 feet. Coffee plants can be grown at lower altitude but attack from various parasites cause problems which make low altitude cultivation hard.
Desirable temperature averages between 65 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. The Arabica coffee plant will grow in hotter areas but is not well suited for higher temperature. The Robusta coffee plant is typically located in hotter and more humid areas at lower altitudes around 600 to 1500 feet. Frost will kill every variety of coffee plant known. Thus, it limits the altitude and latitude at which this plant can thrive. The coffee plant is susceptible to changes in temperature. Temperature affects the color of the coffee leaf, the hotter the lighter the color green. The longer periods of deep green, the healthier the coffee plant.
Generally, the coffee growing area takes at least 75 inches of rain fall per year. The rainfall should be spread over a 9 month period, with about 2-3 months of only a few inches of rain. The dry spell is needed to allow coffee buds, flowering, and new growth. Erosion aside, the coffee plant will grow well with much more water so long as it does not sit in water. In areas with less than 75 inches per year, careful irrigation can provide adequate water for the coffee plant.
The delicate coffee tree yields beans that are an economic mainstay for dozens of countries and about 25 million people—and, among natural commodities, have a monetary value surpassed only by oil. Of the two main coffee trees, arabicas beget the better beans—and about 70 percent of the harvest. The harsher beans of the hardier robusta tree account for about 30 percent.
The three primary coffee growing regions are:
Latin America and the Caribbean Islands Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and Indonesia India and Southeast Asia
The Alpaca Bean Coffees:
Because of its excellent mild character, Peruvian coffee is often used in blending French roasts, and as a flavored-coffee base. The best Peruvian coffee can be found high in the Andes in the Chanchamayo and Urubamba Valleys, and northern Peru is developing a reputation as a producer of good quality, certified organic coffees.
There are some indigenous advantages to the Bolivian coffee sector which give it great potential for high quality coffees. The production of sustainable coffee in Bolivia seeks to take advantage of those distinct benefits and The Alpaca Bean seeks to provide a market for this coffee as it emerges onto the world's coffee table.